Linux

The most popular Operating System around.



When I ask someone if they have heard of Linux, they will often say something like "Yea I've heard of it, but I don't think it will ever be very popular".

Then I ask them "have you heard of Android?"

The reality is that the following are Linux:

Android
Kindle Fire
Chrome book
Chrome OS
Nook
Most Web Servers
Smart TVs
Raspberry Pi


Everyone has their own opinion of which Linux Distro is the best. The nice thing is that we have the freedom to choose which Linux Operating System we want. Most Linux Distros are free. Different Linux distros compete to try to be the best in the way that they see fit, but since it's open source, different Linux distros are able to make use of improvements that other distros come up with, so everyone benefits, and competition is good for creating a drive to make things better. A big part of a Linux Operating system is all of the programs that make up the system. The Linux Kernel is small in size compared to all of the other programs which are usually licensed under the GNU licensing.


If you have not tried Linux, you might want to give it a try.
You can download Mageia Linux at www.mageia.org
You can download Debian Linux at www.debian.org


If you have been using Linux for some time now, and have learned a lot, you might want to increase your knowledge of Linux by building your own Lixux Operating System from scratch. You can download a book that will teach you how to build your own Linux From Scratch.


If you want to download a lfs (Linux From Scratch) that has already been built, you can download the one that I built, and use as my main operating system. I built it using the 'not very popular' method of 'Package Users'. With the "package users" method, a new install user is created for each program that is compiled and installed. This gives more control to prevent programs from overwriting other programs when installed. Downloading my system is useful for anyone wanting to know what a completed build looks like, or to compare your system to someone else's. It also allows you to see what the system looks like when built using the package users method. You can look at the files in the system, and see what program installation created those files, because the file system shows who owns those files. If you have started to build the lfs but you never got around to finishing, this will give you something that is complete with a desktop and other programs. You can then take this and continue building it with more programs. Building lfs with the package users method is more work, but much more educational. You really learn a lot by using this method. With my build you can even go into the different package users and look at the history of of what commands were run to build the package. It's all there including notes and basic instructions, and some rambling. :-)


What I have available for download is a CloneZilla image file of the operating system.

md5sums:

bd4b2a3d72004deef61b53b1084c9778 lfs-img-2017-06-10-11.tar.gz
31.69 GB

72e3cfb83f60adb4197fe6ccdf7babda lfs-stick-img-2017-06-10-14.tar.gz
9.65 GB

The stick version is the same thing, but without all of the source code. So it's a quicker download, and will fit on a large memory stick.

Because of the file size, don't use the web browser to download it, instead download it with something that will allow you to continue downloading it, when you get disconnected, such as

wget -c http://waynesallee.com/downloads/lfs-img-2017-06-10-11.tar.gz
31.69 GB
Needs a hard drive of at least 335 GiB to fit the partitions. Actual space of ext3 is 100.11 GiB.

wget -c http://waynesallee.com/downloads/lfs-img-2017-06-10-11.tar.gz
9.65 GB
Needs a memory stick or hard drive of at least 64 GiB to fit the partitions. Actual space of ext4 is 25.29 GiB.

Then if you get disconnected or need to continue downloading later, all you have to do is press the up arrow on your keyboard, and continue downloading it.


The root password is "lfsisforme".
The password for the 2 test users is "testuser".
When you boot it up and get to the desktop login screen, click on the user "me" and log in with the password "testuser".
After logging in, go to "Dektop_for_me", click on "LFS Documments", click on "ReadMe.txt".
I started with book 7.7, and later started using book 7.10.


This is set up best for Mate desktop. Other desktops also installed are KDE, xfce, LXDE, Openbox, and Some parts of Gnome.


Here is the install user list:
root [ ~ ]# grep install /etc/group
install:x:9999:linux-libc-headers,man-pages,shadow,glibc,zlib,file,binutils,gmp,mpfr,mpc,gcc,bzip2,pkg-config,ncurses,attr,acl,libcap,sed,psmisc,procps-ng,e2fsprogs,coreutils,iana-etc,m4,flex,bison,grep,readline,bash,bc,libtool,gdbm,expat,inetutils,perl,autoconf,automake,diffutils,gawk,findutils,gettext,intltool,gperf,groff,xz,less,gzip,iproute2,kbd,kmod,libpipeline,make,patch,sysklogd,sysvinit,tar,texinfo,eudev,util-linux,man-db,vim,lfs-bootscripts,cpio,initramfs,linux,lynx,gpm,bootscripts,blfs-bootscripts,dhcpcd,openssl,openssh,wget,lvm2,parted,lsb-release,certificate-authority,consolekit,dbus-glib,dbus,freetype,libffi,python,pcre,glib,libxml2,desktop-file-utils,shared-mime-info,dbus-python,icu,libpng,harfbuzz,which,fontconfig,xorg-build-environment,util-macros,xorg-protocol-headers,libxau,libxdmcp,xcb-proto,libxcb,xorg-libraries,xcb-util,xcb-util-image,xcb-util-keysyms,xcb-util-renderutil,doxygen,xcb-util-wm,libdrm,elfutils,libvdpau,llvm,mesalib,xbitmaps,xorg-applications,xcursor-themes,xorg-fonts,xkeyboard-config,pixman,libepoxy,xorg-server,pciutils,libevdev,mtdev,xf86-input-evdev,xf86-input-synaptics,xf86-input-vmmouse,xf86-input-wacom,xf86-video-ati,xf86-video-fbdev,xf86-video-intel,xf86-video-nouveau,xf86-video-vmware,libva,libva-intel-driver,nettle,libtasn1,gnutls,curl,libarchive,cmake,yasm,fribidi,libass,fdk-aac,nasm,lame,libogg,libvorbis,libtheora,libvpx,x264,alsa-lib,sdl,ffmpeg,glu,libvdpau-va-gl,twm,xterm,xclock,xinit,xf86-video-vesa,rsyslog,vboxguest,wireless_tools,libnl,libical,bluez,libusb,libjpeg-turbo,lcms,libmng,unzip,sqlite,qt,wpa_supplicant,libndp,nspr,nss,gobject-introspection,usbutils,pam,zip,mozjs,polkit,iptables,gsettings-desktop-schemas,p11-kit,glib-networking,libsoup,popt,slang,newt,docbook-xml,docbook-xsl,libxslt,xmlto,pm-utils,upower,vala,networkmanager,ntp-install,acpid,dhcp,links,gdb,fonts,asciidoc,git,sgml-common,opensp,openjade,docbook-dsssl,docbook,atk,libsigc,libsigsegv,glibmm,atkmm,at-spi2-core,at-spi2-atk,cairo,cairomm,libtiff,gdk-pixbuf,pango,cogl,json-glib,clutter,gstreamer,iso-codes,gst-plugins-base,libdvdread,libdvdnav,soundtouch,openjpeg,gst-plugins-bad,clutter-gst,gtk-plus,clutter-gtk,hicolor-icon-theme,fltk,freeglut,libgsf,libcroco,librsvg,goffice,gtk-engines,pangomm,gtkmm,giflib,itstool,madplay,libmad,libid3tag,imlib2,py2cairo,pycairo,pygobject,libglade,pygtk,pyxdg,keybinder,json-c,libsndfile,speex,pulseaudio,libcanberra,notification-daemon,libnotify,libxfce4util,xfconf,startup-notification,libxfce4ui,xfce4-notifyd,libxklavier,libgusb,colord-daemon,xdg-utils,cups,ijs,babl,gegl,gimp,gutenprint,poppler,qpdf,cups-filters,jasper,libwebp,ruby,libsecret,libgpg-error,libgcrypt,docbook-utils,pinentry,libksba,libassuan,pth,gnupg,gcr,gnome-keyring,gconf,geoclue,aspell,enchant,webkitgtk,htop,beep,lfsdesktopproject,lightdm,lxmenu-data,lxde-icon-theme,libfm,menu-cache,graphviz,libexif,adwaita-icon-theme,pcmanfm,libwnck,lxpanel,lxappearance,libunique,lxsession,openbox,numlockx,lxde-common,lxdm,vte,lxterminal,gpicview,lxappearance-obconf,lxinput,lxrandr,lxtask,xfce4-terminal,libconfig,compton,libevent,flac,gst-plugins-good,gst-libav,transmission,gtksourceview,libpeas,libatasmart,udisks,gvfs,gedit,bluefish,gparted,xscreensaver,strace,libgphoto,iotop,net-tools-cvs,wicd,lshw,alsa-utils,flash-player,help2man,light,hostapd,haveged,creat_ap,dnsmasq,exo,garcon,gtk-xfce-engine,libxfcegui4,xfce4-panel,icon-naming-utils,gnome-icon-theme,gnome-icon-theme-extras,thunar,polkit-gnome,thunar-volman,tumbler,xfce4-appfinder,xfce4-power-manager,xfce4-settings,xfdesktop,xfwm4,xfce4-session,xfce4-mixer,mate-common,mate-desktop,dconf,libmatekbd,mate-icon-theme,mate-polkit,mate-icon-theme-faenza,mate-settings-daemon,mate-session-manager,mate-menus,mate-terminal,mate-panel,libmatemixer,libmateweather,mate-backgrounds,mate-themes,mate-notification-daemon,mate-control-center,yelp-tools-gnome,gnome-common,yelp-xsl,yelp,zenity,mate-screensaver,mate-media,mate-power-manager,libgnome-keyring-gnome,gtk-doc,mate-system-monitor,libgtop,mate-applets,atril,caja,caja-dropbox,docutils,caja-extensions,engrampa,eom,marco,mate-indicator-applet,libindicator,mate-netbook,mate-sensors-applet,mate-user-guide,mate-user-share,apr,apr-util,apache-httpd,libdaemon,avahi,rfkill,testinstalluser,mod_dnssd,mate-utils,mozo,pluma,python-caja,gtk2-engines-murrine,glade,obconf,alacarte,gnome-menus,kde,automoc,phonon,gst-plugins-ugly,phonon-backend-gstreamer,gpart,gnome-doc-utils,rarian,jfsutils,fuse,ntfs-3g,reiserfsprogs,lzo,btrfs-progs,dosfstools,mtools,hfsutils,phonon-backend-vlc,liba52,lua,libdv,libdvdcss,samba,v4l-utils,faad2,libgksu,gksu,mate-file-manager-gksu,libmpeg2,opus,aalib,libsamplerate,taglib,cppunit,vlc,boost,akonadi,attica,qimageblitz,smartmontools,gsmartcontrol,polkit-qt,oxygen-icons,libdbusmenu-qt,strigi,qca,kdelibs,kfilemetadata,gpgme,berkeley-db,cyrus-sasl,qjson,openldap,kdepimlibs,xapian-core,baloo,baloo-widgets,polkit-kde-agent,kactivities,exiv2,kde-runtime,kde-baseapps,kde-base-artwork,appmenu-qt,kde-workspace,libzip,okular,autokey,python-xlib,python-sip,pyqt-x11-gpl,pykde4,chrpath,qscintilla_gpl,xbindkeys,libunistring,libatomic_ops,gc,guile,gavl,opencv,frei0r-plugins,tcl,tk,mlt,kdenlive,dev86src,libfilezilla,wxwidgets,libidn,filezilla,acpica,libidl,hal,gsoap,jdk,makeself,ghostscript,graphite,libpaper,texlive,ghex,powertop,clucene,gnome-disk-utility,cracklib,libpwquality,gnome-settings-daemon,gnome-desktop,neon,npapi-sdk,raptor,rasqal,redland,unixodbc,postgresql,libreoffice,virtualbox,libburn,libisofs,libisoburn,dvd-rw-tools,gphoto,gphotofs,wine,gnome-calculator,gjs,gnome-video-effects,gmime,totem-pl-parser,gnome-icon-theme-symbolic,gnome-themes-standard,cheese,sword,bibletime,rdiff-backup,librsync,gdl,gsl,inkscape,exempi,nautilus,avidemux,audacity,opencore-amr,amrnb,amrwb,libao,twolame,vorbis-tools,wavpack,sox,lv2,libsbsms,soxr,compiz,protobuf,pyrex,lcov,p7zip,openjdk,webalizer,libgd,pngquant,apache-ant,system-config-printer,zint,glabels,metacity,autoconf-archive,ibus,mate-calc,rtmpdump,x265,rtlwifi